What is an Image Sensor ? and its types ?

What is an Image Sensor? How it works?

 An image sensor is a sensor that senses and conveys a bunch of pixels and data (a group of information ) which is used to develop an image. It develops an image by converting the variable attenuation of light waves (as they pass through an image sensor or reflect off objects) into signals, small bursts of current are produced that convey the information. to the processing unit.

Sensors are a piece of hardware that senses data from our physical world and conveys to our's whatever digital devices. Multiple sensors come installed in gadgets, whether it is a PC, laptop, mobile phone or even a smartwatch. A separate sensor for analyzing each action, ie the Proximity Sensor for detecting the presence of nearby objects, Gyroscope Sensor for measuring angular velocity(the rate of change of angular position of a rotating body), Accelerometer Sensor for determining the orientation(Portrait or Landscape) of device.
Well, we are here for learning about the Image or Camera sensor particularly. As the name suggests, Image Sensor is used to sense objects and capture them in image form.

image sensor
image sensor

There are two main types of image sensors:

  1. Charged coupled device (CCD)
  2. Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)

Charged coupled device (CCD) : 

CCDs image sensor is manufactured with a special process to make it capable to transport charge across the chip without any distortion. That makes it a very high-quality sensor in terms of fidelity and light sensitivity and they are very costly as well. CCD's image sensors consume lots of power. CCDs image sensor consumes 100 times more power than an equivalent CMOS sensor. The CCD image sensor has produced for a longer period earlier, so they are more mature than a CMOS image sensor. They tend to have higher quality and more pixels and now mostly used in DSLRs. The CCD image sensor mainly used in digital cameras that focus on high-quality images that captures a lot of pixels and excellent light sensitivity.

Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) :

 CMOS image sensor uses traditional manufacturing processes to develop the chip -- the same processes used to develop most of the microprocessors. The CMOS  image sensor has several transistors at each pixel that amplifies the captured image and moves the charge using more traditional wires in its chip. The CMOS image sensor approach of processing is more flexible because in CMOS image sensor each pixel can be read individually. and  CMOS image sensor is also affordable and it is mainly used in smartphones and in every budget camera device.  CMOS image sensor, traditionally, is more susceptible to noise just because of that we see more noise in night pictured captured from smartphones. CMOS image sensor chips are fabricated on standard silicon production lines, so they are extremely inexpensive compared to the CCD  image sensors.

Stay Tuned For More Detailed Article on the image sensor and much more. for any suggestion or query reach us on social platforms or visit contact us page link at bottom Thanks for giving time on our article.

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